First Electric Vehicle of history


With the invention of the battery, by the Italian Alessandro Volta (1745-1827) in 1800, the generation of a magnetic field from the electric current by the Danish physicist Hans Christian Orsted (1777-1851), in 1820 and the invention of the electromagnet on the part of the British William Sturgeon (1783-1850), the foundations had been laid to create electric motors.


First Electric Vehicle of history

In 1827, the Hungarian Benedictine physicist and priest, Ányos Jedlik (1800-1895), built an electric motor (which some claim was the first electric motor in history). a rotor composed of an electromagnet that rotated it. In 1828, Jedlik placed his engine in a small car-scale model that made him walk, becoming the first vehicle-of any kind-in history to have been powered by electric power. However, I could not transport people, since it was a scale model.

In 1835, the American engineer Thomas Davenport (1802-1851), made a public demonstration of this small electric car to scale, although it did not attract too much attention from the people, who considered it a mere academic experiment, since at that time the Most people still did not know the practical uses that could be given to electricity as a source of energy.

In 1835 the Dutch chemistry professor Sibrandus Stratingh (1785-1841) designed a small car-scale model powered by non-rechargeable batteries, his assistant ChristopherBecker was responsible for building it.
During that decade, before 1839, it is known that the British inventor, Robert Anderson built the first life-size electric propulsion carriage in history, which had threewheels and was powered by non-rechargeable batteries.
The British chemist, Robert Davidson (1804-1894), built a small electric motor in 1837. Davidson produced a series of small electric motors based on batteries of galvaniccells (batteries that generate electricity from an electrochemical reaction called reduction and oxidation produced between two metals such as zinc and copper).

Parallel and without knowing each other, in the United States, the inventor William H. Taylor (1865-1937), built independently, from 1838, electric galvanic motors similarto those of Robert Davidson.

In 1841, Davidson built an electric locomotive that he named "Galvani". It was exhibited at the exhibition of the Royal Scottish Society of Arts. It was a 4 wheel vehicle, approximately 7 tons, (7,000 kilograms), with 2electric batteries that delivered electricity to 8 fixed electromagnets that acted on iron bars attached to a wooden cylinder located on each axle of wheels of the vehicle, which they were spinning.

It could pull a load of up to 6 tons (6,000 kilograms) at a speed of 6 km / h, for a distance of 2.5 kilometers. It was successfully tested in September 1842 on the railway tracks of Edinburgh and Glasgow, without transporting any passenger or cargo on board. But given the low power of its batteries and its low performance, it was not used commercially and the project was canceled. Finally, it was destroyed by railroad workers who considered it a threat to their jobs.

In the year 1847, the American electrical engineer Moses Gerrish Farmer (1820-1893), adapted an electric motor to a carriage, which was propelled by 48 electrical batteries of type Grove (named in honor of its inventor the Welsh judge and engineer William 
Robert Grove (1811-1896) and could carry two passengers, it was the first electric car in the United States, but the zinc batteries were not rechargeable, they had to be replaced and they were approximately forty times more expensive than burning coal. in a steam engine, to make equal distance travel, so that locomotives and electric cars were not yet economically viable. In spite of this, in 1840, was issued in Britain a patent for a system that used rails as means of electricity conduction In the United States, similar patents were also issued.

In the year 1840, in the city of Washington, DC; American physician and professor of chemistry, Charles Grafton Page (1812-1868) built a small model of an electric car that had the same technical principles of the Davenport vehicle but rather perfected in design and operation. This small model could reach a speed of 26 km/h.

He also built the first electric locomotive in the United States, which he tested in 1851 over an 8-kilometer route between Washington, DC and Bladensburg, Maryland. It was a locomotive of almost 10 tons (10,000 kg), which reached a maximum speed of 30 km/h. For the public demonstration, the intention was to reach the city of Baltimore, but a series of technical problems during the trip, which included short circuits and sparks, forced Page and his mechanical assistant, Ari Davis, to perform the repairs at the same moment. and once reached Bladensburg, return to the American capital without achieving the goal of reaching Baltimore.

But most of the electric vehicles that were built were small scale models or experimental electric locomotives. It was not until the French physicist Gaston Planté (1834-1889) invented the rechargeable lead-acid battery in 1859 that electric cars had some practical use, so steam engines were still preferred.

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