History of the First Automobiles


The first "autonomous rolling machine" in history was built in China, back in the seventeenth century, in exactly the year 1678, the artifice of this 3-wheel steam car was the French Jesuit Ferdinand Verbiest (1623-1688).

History of the First Automobiles

In 1769, in France, the engineer Nicol├ís-Joseph Cugnot (1725-1804) built the first self-propelled vehicle of which there is a historical record, which he called "fardier ├ávapeur", whose meaning is "cargo wagon weighs -steam ». It is a vehicle with 3 cartwheels, a front, and two rear wheels, approximate weight of 2,800 kg., And a front steam engine (where in a common cart would be the draft horses), with a huge coal tank Incandescent that evaporates to the water, pistons and rods that convert the linear movement produced by the vapor pressure, in rotational movement, through a mechanism that generates the rotation of the wheels and therefore the movement of the vehicle, which can reach a speed of up to 3.8 km/h.

In 1784 the British engineer and inventor, William Murdoch (1754-1839), built another steam car and the first made in Great Britain and in a country that was not France. Itis a small tricycle to scale, about 30 centimeters high, with a small front wheel and two rear larger, a steam engine with boiler located in the back between the two wheels and a lever that works as turning rudder to move the front wheel. This vehicle had some.

new features such as a cylinder partially inserted into the boiler and with a safety valve to prevent explosions. Murdoch made the first public demonstration of a self-propelled vehicle in Great Britain, in the River Lounge of the King's Head Hotel in the city of Truro, Cornwall. Currently, this miniature vehicle is housed in the Thinktank Museum of Science in Birmingham.

In 1786, Murdoch built another model and according to some, in the 1790s came to build some model of human-sized size large enough to transport a passenger, although there is no record or historical document to confirm the latter. Murdoch did not have time to fully involve himself in his project since he worked for the steam engine company of Matthew Boulton (1728-1759) and the Scottish engineer James Watt (1736-1819) and did not have too much free time.

In 1786, the British William Symington (1763-1831), built the first large-scale steam car, that is, on a human scale, of Great Britain. It was a steam carriage, whose design resembled that of a horse-drawn carriage since the steam engine was isolated from the rest of the vehicle (just like the horses of a common carriage), except that instead of ahead, was in the back, pushing the carriage in front of him. The traction of this vehicle was direct to the rear wheels and was exhibited in the city of Edinburgh and in spite of having worked sometimes, it did not have a good performance and soon, the project was abandoned.

In 1794, the British inventor Richard Trevithick (1771-1833), he met the model on the scale of William Murdoch (it is noteworthy that they were neighbors and lived a few meters away between the years 1797 and 1798 in the city of Redruth, in the English region of Cornwall to the southwest of Great Britain). In 1799, inspired by the work of Murdoch, Richard Trevithick built what is thought to be the first high-pressure steam engine, fully functional.

History of the First Automobiles


In 1801, Trevithick built Britain's first fully functional and well-performing car. He called it "Puffing Devil" (smoking devil) and on the eve of Christmas of that year, made a public demonstration, transporting six passengers from the city of Camborne, also in the English region of Cornwall, to the neighboring town of Beacon. During this experiment, he was even driven uphill by the area of a hill.

The vehicle had a weight of 1,520 kg., And thanks to the greater performance of its high-pressure steam engine and a single-piston, it could reach a maximum speed of 14.5km/h. and after a few more tests, this car A steam engine in the shape of a small locomotive (in fact it was a locomotive to walk on roads) was broken by passing through a ditch on a road. The vehicle was left in a kind of shelter, by mistake with the boiler still on, while the operators went to eat at a nearby pub. During all that time the water in the boiler evaporated completely and the machine started to burn and was finally destroyed. However, Trevithick did not see it as a serious problem and continued with more developments over the next few years (including the first steam railway locomotive).

The first Trevithick car was very uncomfortable
to carry passengers and had an unpleasant aesthetic design. So in 1803, he built, along with the mechanical engineer and captain of English mines Andrew Vivian (1759-1842), who was his cousin and also partner, a carriage with a cabin and seats to carry several passengers, which some consider as the first automobile designed especially to carry comfortably seated passengers, although others maintain that the

 vehicle of Symington of the year 1786, in spite of not having had a good performance, was 
the first automobile destined to the transport of passengers seated comfortably. But what is clear is that this Trevithick carriage was the first car of good performance and fully functional. This vehicle had the shape of a carriage, but without horses but a steam engine with a boiler and tailpipe in the back. It had two large rear wheels of 2.40 m. in diameter, connected to the traction axle of the vehicle. It was sent to build in the carriages workshops of William Felton (1823-1909), in London and parts of the engine were manufactured in the city of Falmouth in the Cornwall region, from where they were transported to the workshops of Felton where they were assembled.

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